White Papers

02/15/2009

The National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) uses three levels to describe student achievement—basic, proficient, and advanced (Lee, Grigg, & Donahue, 2007). Although below basic is not a recognized NAEP designation, it is…

02/13/2009

Excerpt 1: Today, chemists use their understanding of the behavior of atoms to imagine and then create new compounds that have never existed in nature. Since Fleming's day, chemists have designed many different antibiotics to overcome…

02/13/2009

Students with below-proficient achievement are not the lowest performers in our classrooms. These students are able to meet some of the expectations established for their grade level; however, their reading and writing abilities are…

02/13/2009

Vignette 1: Ya-Wen had heard teachers say that writing a summary helps people remember what they've read, but she had never been able to do that. Now she is taking an online earth science course that periodically reminds her to write…

02/13/2009

The English Foundations series (including two full-year courses: English Foundations I and English Foundations II) has been carefully designed to help adolescent learners with below-proficient and below-basic achievement to become…